St. Robert Bellarmine was also present for St. Aloysius Gonzagas death in 1591. While St. Aloysius Gonzaga (15681591) was stationed in Rome, St. Robert Bellarmine acted as his spiritual director. If the apostolic ideal is one of the principal generators of holiness, we can see how anything which undermines it must necessarily lead to a decline in holiness. He was the first Jesuit to teach at the university, where the subject of his course was the Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas. 11. Saint. de thiol. Catholic Online School - Free education with 1,000,000 student enrollments. Bellarmine reviewed the issues[11] and devoted eleven years to it while at the Roman College. But what makes St. Robert Bellarmine relatable and not just some bookworm-savant is the fact that even fellow saints occasionally looked askance at him. We end with the oration for his feast in the traditional rite. 6. I have gladly read the letter in Italian and the treatise which Your Reverence sent me, and I thank you for both. "We have said", wrote Benedict XIV to Cardinal de Tencin, "in confidence to the General of the Jesuits that the delay of the Cause has come not from the petty matters laid to his charge by Cardinal Passionei, but from the sad circumstances of the times" (tudes Religieuses, 15 April, 1896). St. Roberts Bellarmine was baptized Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino in his hometown of Montepulciano in Tuscany in 1542. The Pope spoke at the Faculty of Information Technology and Bionics at Pzmny Pter Catholic University in Budapest. Indeed the Fathers of Vatican I turned to his works when framing the definition of Papal Infallibility. Extensiveness, in the number of her loyal members. Born in the Tuscan hilltop town of Montepulciano in 1542, Bellarmine says that as a child he was good at most everything but excelled at nothing. The difficulty was how to substitute a more correct edition without affixing a stigma to the name of Sixtus, and Bellarmine proposed that the new edition should continue in the name of Sixtus, with a prefatory explanation that, on account of aliqua vitia vel typographorum vel aliorum which had crept in, Sixtus had himself resolved that a new impression should be undertaken. Bellarmine wrote three rejoinders to the Venetian theologians, and may have warned Sarpi of an impending murderous attack, when in September 1607, an unfrocked friar and brigand by the name of Rotilio Orlandini planned to kill Sarpi for the sum of 8,000 crowns. - St. Mary of the Assumption Cathedral, Trenton, NJ, THANK YOU! Of derived lives the best are those by FRIZON (1708), and COUDERC (1893). The quarrel led to a war of pamphlets in which the part of the Republic was sustained by John Marsiglio and an apostate monk named Paolo Sarpi, and that of the Holy See by Bellarmine and Baronius. The gift of Prophecy found among the Churchs saints and spokesmen. This tribute to the Trinity as deep mystery captures the spirit of St. Catherine of Siena so well that the Roman Catholic Church reads it every year o Jesus is the Good Shepherd because he leads us to verdant pastures where the food is ample and of the best quality. This traveling exhibit has been created to assist those who will experience it to affirm belief in the Real Presence of the Jesus in the Eucharist. He was one of the most important figures in the Counter-Reformation. Shop St. Aloysius Gonzaga. Robert Bellarmine S.J. Fifteen Marks of the Catholic Church Robert Bellarmine, This list of the 15 Marks of the Catholic Church is an excerpt from the book by St. Robert Bellarmine, Splendor of Truth-John Paul II Veritatis Splendor, Jerusalem Catecheses 1-12 Cyril of Jerusalem, Jerusalem Catecheses 12-24 Cyril of Jerusalem, What We Believe: The Beauty of the Catholic Faith Video Trailer, Prayer to the Good Shepherd-Gregory of Nyssa, Eternal Trinity, Deep Mystery Catherine of Siena, Advent: The Season of the Wild-Haired, Crazy Man, 3 Crazy Ways Christianity & Islam Are Totally Different. 15. The next pope, Clement VIII, said of him, "the Church of God had not his equal in learning". In 1990, Father Omar Huesca assumed as the new pastor and is in charge of remodeling the parish. In its pages, St. Robert Bellarmine, S.J., provides a profound guide for meditation on the way of the cross and the mystery of our redemption. Part of the reason he is one of the very few admitted to the rank of Doctors literally, teachers of the Church is that his method was not one of toeing the line, or endlessly ranting about the evils of Protestantism, but that unique quality of mind that allowed him to take apart his enemies arguments while at the same time building up his own, which were, of course, those of the Church. Smith, S. (1907). Born at Montepulciano, Italy, St. Robert Bellarmine was the son of Cynthia Cervini. Significantly, that is the feast of the Stigmata of Saint Francis of Assisi that is, the feast commemorating the impression of Saint Francis with the Five Wounds of Our Lord. Copyright 2004-2020 Saint Benedict Center, Richmond, New Hampshire. Canonized: June 29, 1930. But, Clark remarks us, the Catholic Church chose to do none of the above: The popes authority had been questioned by the Protestants? - St. Aloysius Roman Catholic Church, Jackson, NJ, THANK YOU! But this assignment outside Rome only lasted about two years, as he was recalled in 1597 by Pope Clement VIII to become that Popes theologian. We're not salespeople, but we depend on donations averaging $14.76 and fewer than 1% of readers give. Copyright 2023 EWTN News, Inc. All rights reserved. In 1592 Bellarmine was made Rector of the Roman College, and in 1595 Provincial of Naples. - St. Joseph's Catholic Church, Toms River, NJ, THANK YOU! In the field of church-state relations, he took a position based on principles now regarded as fundamentally democratic - authority originates with God, but is vested in the people, who entrust it to fit rulers. Even the Protestant King James I of England engaged in controversy with him. MLA citation. But, instead of serving the Church as Pope, he rather served the new Pope, Paul V, in a number of official capacities. Photo Gallery Panel Examples: Specifications: SIZE- The Exhibit is 26 Ft wide by 8ft Tall. (The latters title was a nod to the Seraphic Doctor, St. He supported the reform decrees of the Council of Trent. In response to the Protestant Reformation, much of his efforts went toward organizing Church doctrine for clarity and understanding. 7. St. Robert Bellarmine thrives as a Spirit filled community of diverse individuals. Confessorand Doctor of the Church Archbishop Emeritus of Capua 17th-century portrait of Robert Bellarmine, Antwerp, Museum Plantin-Moretus Church Roman Catholic Church See Capua Appointed 18 March 1602 Installed 21 April 1602 Term ended August 1605 Predecessor This article was transcribed for New Advent by Paul T. Crowley. CHURCH Section of the Crossroads Initiative Library. His mother, Cinzia Cervini, a niece of Pope Marcellus II, was dedicated to almsgiving, prayer, meditation, fasting, and mortification of the body. The reasonableness and fairness of this great post-Tridentine theologian is demonstrated by his sympathetic interest in Galileo and his scientific views that were harshly rejected as unbiblical by other Roman theologians of the day. He has left us a host of important writings, including works of devotion and instruction, as well as controversy. Catholic Online YouTube - over 4,800 Catholic videos. In truth, it would seem that the holy Cardinal . Your gift is tax-deductible as allowed by law. Galileo and St. Bellarmine. R. Bellarmine . Until 1589, Bellarmine was occupied as professor of theology. 17 Sep. Robert Bellarmine. This traveling exhibit has been created to assist those who will experience it to affirm belief in the Real Presence of the Jesus in the Eucharist. It is based upon the website created by Blessed Carlo Acutis to catalogue all of the eucharistic miracles that have taken place worldwide. Though the telescope argued much, it proved nothing. A cardinal, Jesuit, and a doctor of the church, his feast day is Sept. 17. The next three years he spent in studying philosophy at the Roman College, after which he taught the humanities first at Florence, then at Mondov. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. The rank assigned to his feast has been "double" (19321959), "third-class feast" (19601968), and since the 1969 revision "memorial". During his retirement, he wrote several short books intended to help ordinary people in their spiritual life: De ascensione mentis in Deum per scalas rerum creatorum opusculum (The Mind's Ascent to God by the Ladder of Created Things 1614) which was translated into English as Jacob's Ladder (1638) without acknowledgement by Henry Isaacson,[30] The Art of Dying Well (1619) (in Latin, English translation under this title by Edward Coffin),[31] and The Seven Words on the Cross. Saint Robert Bellarmine Catholic School is dedicated to educating students in a Catholic, Christ-centered environment. The Catholic Encyclopedia. . Request the Exhibit for your Parish Fill out this form to start the process. Copyright 2022 Catholic Online. After ordination to the priesthood again, the year was 1570 he was appointed professor at the Louvain in Belgium, where he lectured on the works of Saint Thomas Aquinas until 1576. Perhaps in the most narrow, highly-qualified definition that is true, but during the response to the Protestant Reformation, the popes realized that their closest advisers had to stop decorating their palatial estates with the works of Raphael and Michelangelo, and actually rebuild the Church that was being besieged on all sides literally, given the horrific wars of religion. Bellarmine wrote the preface to the new Sixto-Clementine Vulgate. . He published many works addressing various heresies and underlying philosophical questions regarding theology. Robert Bellarmine, SJ (Italian: Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino; 4 October 1542 17 September 1621) was an Italian Jesuit and a cardinal of the Catholic Church. He also took a prominent part in the production of the revised edition of the Vulgate, known as the Sixto-Clementine, in 1592. In 1576 he was recalled to Italy, and entrusted with the chair of Controversies recently founded at the Roman College. We are united by our Core Values of Living Faith, Practicing Service, Achieving Excellence, Inspiring Leadership, and Promoting Collaboration. Not since St. Thomas Aquinas and even the voluminous St. Augustine had a theologian produced such a body of work. 3. Further, in 1599 he made him Cardinal-Priest of the title of Santa Maria in vi, alleging as his reason for this promotion that "the Church of God had not his equal in learning". He composed an exhaustive apologetic work against the prevailing heretics of his day. Most Americans tend to think of religion as something rather fluid. "[11] In 1602 he was made archbishop of Capua. And in the unforgettable Galileo affair, St. Robert Bellarmine personally delivered the command to Galileo to stop teaching that the earth revolved around the sun. There he was ordained and obtained a reputation both as a professor and as a preacher. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution - Share Alike License. In 1597 Clement VIII recalled him to Rome and made him his own theologian and likewise Examiner of Bishops and Consultor of the Holy Office. Miracles and Faith July 6, 2022 Wednesday of the Fourteenth Week in Ordinary Time Jesus summoned his Twelve disciples and gave them authority over unclean spirits to drive them out and to cure every. He wants us to thrive, not surviv Isnt Advent great? [18], Bellarmine wrote to heliocentrist Paolo Antonio Foscarini in 1615:[18]. Of the particular transactions with which his name is most generally associated the following were the most important: The inquiry de Auxiliis, which after all Clement had not seen his way to decide, was now terminated with a settlement on the lines of Bellarmine's original suggestion. [13] Galileo agreed to do so. He studied for the priesthood at Rheims. A full list of Bellarmine's writings, and of those directed against him, may be seen in Sommervogel's "Bibliothhque de la compagnie de Jsus". Catholic Church. Among de Bays errors was the denial of free will. It has been made "kinder and gentler" in the new rite. Reproduction of material from this website without written permission, or unlicensed commercial use or Many years later he had the further consolation of successfully promoting the beatification of the saintly youth. The first words St. Aloysius spoke were the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary. cath. Episcopal Succession, of her Bishops from the first Apostles at the Last Supper to the present hierarchy. St. Robert Bellarmine took to poetry in his youth and is said to have memorized many of Virgils works. But his testimony, as there is no evidence to the contrary, should be accepted as decisive, seeing how conscientious a man he was in the estimation of his contemporaries; and the more so since it cannot be impugned without casting a slur on the character of his fellow-commissioners who accepted his suggestion, and of Clement VIII who with full knowledge of the facts gave his sanction to Bellarmine's preface being prefixed to the new edition. Father Huesca was the pastor of St. Robert until August 25th, 2009 . In the Traditional Roman Rite, Saint Roberts feast is May 13, the anniversary of his Beatification by Pius XI. Mary, Cause of Our Joy, pray for us! Speaking of which, in 1576 he was recalled to Rome, and entrusted with the newly founded Chair of Controversies at the Jesuit-run Roman College (which is known today as the Gregorian). (He had said that all he wanted to be was a professor, a role he excelled at at the celebrated University of Louvain, Belgium; he later served in Rome at the Gregorian, Jesuit and English Colleges.). He took up too--as is witnessed by his letter to Galileo's friend Foscarini--exactly the right attitude towards scientific theories in seeming contradiction with Scripture. He died in 1621. It should be recalled that the non-residence (or absence) of bishops, pastors, abbots, and other clerical office-holders was an enormous abuse that had only recently been corrected by the sixth session of the Council of Trent, which made Ecclesiastical Residence mandatory. Antiquity, in tracing her ancestry directly to Jesus Christ. As bishop he put into effect the reforming decrees of the Council of Trent. Episode 370: Dramatis Personae Hebdomodae Sanctae, Episode 369: Types and Shadows of Our Lords Resurrection, The Slaves of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Outside the Church there is no Salvation (Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus), Saint Benedict Center in Richmond, New Hampshire, Brother Francis, M.I.C.M. Union, of her members among themselves, and with their visible head, the Roman Pontiff. According to Pierre Duhem and Karl Popper in one respect, at least, Bellarmine had shown himself a better scientist than Galileo by disallowing the possibility of a strict proof of the earths motion, on the grounds that an astronomical theory merely saves the appearances without necessarily revealing what really happens.[20] Philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn, in his book, The Copernican Revolution, after commenting on Cesare Cremonini, who refused to look through Galileos telescope, wrote: Most of Galileos opponents behaved more rationally. TIME- The exhibit is placed for a Minimum of 2 weeks. This new professorial position was part of the fighting spirit of the Counter-Reformation, as it was established for the purpose of refuting the heresies of the so-called Reformers. The lectures he delivered there grew into the multi-volume opus, De Controversiis, which is perhaps the work he is chiefly known for. On April 12, 1615 Cardinal Bellarmine, a man later canonized by the Catholic Church as a Saint and hence by its own inviolable logic divinely inspired and infallible when pronouncing on the true nature of all things, wrote to Foscarini A.1: . Rege cum Card. Order Bulk SubscriptionsGet a discount on 6 or more copies sent to your parish, organization But Sixtus V, though unskilled in this branch of criticism, had introduced alterations of his own, all for the worse. And like Augustine, he would be promoted to the episcopate much against his will. Constant Duration, in lasting substantially unchanged for so many centuries. The school colors are Red, White, and Royal Blue., Among the Churchs Holy Women, St. Teresa of vila Stands as a Giant, St. Teresa of vila, Whom God Treated as a Friend, St. Teresa of vila, Doctor of the Church, Pray For Us. In 1576, he was appointed to the chair of controversial theology at the Roman College, becoming Rector in 1592; he went on to become Provincial of Naples in 1594 and Cardinal in 1598. Creative Commons Attribution - Share Alike License. R. Bellarmini, S.R.E. Like Bellarmine, they agreed that the phenomena were in the sky but denied that they proved Galileos contentions. His father was Vincenzo Bellarmino, his mother Cinthia Cervini, sister of Cardinal Marcello Cervini, afterwards Pope Marcellus II. Ad Rem A Fortnightly Email Message from the Prior, Whats in that Prayer? Born at Montepulciano, Italy, October 4, 1542, St. Robert Bellarmine was the third of ten children. The son of noble parents, he entered the Society of Jesus, finishing his theological studies at Louvain,. As regards to the Papacy, he supported Paul V in his struggle against Venice and defended the concept of the temporal authority of the Pope, though saw this power as indirect and limited. In 1567 he began his theology at Padua, but in 1569 was sent to finish it at Louvain, where he could obtain a fuller acquaintance with the prevailing heresies. - with thousands of pages of magisterial content. From a point of principle for English Catholics, this debate drew in figures from much of Western Europe. Each panel names a miracle, recounts the story of its occurrence and the country where it took place. Only in God is my soul at rest. (Psalm 62:1). These seven words, the "last sermon" of the world's Redeemer, comprise everything that the prophets foretold about Christ: his preaching, prayers, sufferings, and miracles. In 1602, he was named Archbishop of Capua, where he served in an exemplary manner for three years. Author and Publisher - Catholic Online. Saint of the Day for Monday, May 1st, 2023, 7 Morning Prayers you need to get your day started with God. Then all the more would the saints and their relics be glorified and disseminated. Bellarmine was a professor of theology and later rector of the Roman College, and in 1602 became Archbishop of Capua. Biography by Dr. Italy. For a free PDF copy of an English translation of Bellarmines class, download De Controversiis. While at Louvain, he became acquainted with a colleague who also taught there, named Michel de Bay, or Baius, in its Latinized form. II, cap., This exhibit will visit the parishes and schools of the diocese during the time of the Eucharistic Revival. Likewise at this time he sat on the final commission for the revision of the Vulgate text. In the seventh room, the Eucharist is clearly visible in the monstrance and a place has been prepared for you to rest a while in His presence. Its very common for us to say things like all religions are basicall St. Robert Bellarmine here enumerates 15 marks or characteristics of the one, holy Catholic Church of Jesus Christ which expands upon the four notes of the Church as found in the Nicene Creed: unity, catholicity, holiness and its apostolic foundation. Printable Catholic Saints PDFs. His work has been anthologized in Wild Dreams: The Best of Italian-Americana, and he was awarded the Foley Poetry Prize from America Magazine. Contact information. He then went to a Jesuit house at Mondov, in Piedmont, where he learned Greek. 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Saint Robert Bellarmine; Robert Bellarmine. Many thought it was time for the Catholic Church to face facts and meet Luther, Calvin and Zwingli half-way, and rely on the gold Spain was bringing over from the New World for financing. He was named to several offices in the Roman Curia, and was created Cardinal in 1599, at which time Clement VIII said of Saint Robert, that, the Church of God had not his equal in learning.. Until today, the works of St. Bellarmine constitute a wall of defense against Protestantism, Liberalism, Modernism & Progressivism. In other passages, Bellarmine argued that he did not support the heliocentric model for the lack of evidence of the time ("I will not believe that there is such a demonstration, until it is shown to me"). Saint of the day: St. Robert Bellarmine - Catholic News Agency. The new pope insisted on keeping him at Rome, and the cardinal, obediently complying, demanded that at least he should be released from an episcopal charge the duties of which he could no longer fulfil. In the General Roman Calendar Saint Robert Bellarmine's feast day is on 17 September, the day of his death; but some continue to use pre-1969 calendars, in which for 37 years his feast day was on 13 May. His death was most edifying and was a fitting termination to a life which had been no less remarkable for its virtues than for its achievements. Pope Marcellus II served as pope for only 22 days, making him the sixth-shortest serving pope. - Our Lady of the Angels Parish, Trenton, NJ, THANK YOU! Accordingly, when he died there was a general expectation that his cause would be promptly introduced. (Also, "Bellarmino"). The Opposition that the Church arouses among those who attack her on the very grounds that Christ was opposed by His enemies. . Besides, Angelo Rocca, the Secretary of the revisory commissions of Sixtus V and the succeeding pontiffs, himself wrote a draft preface for the new edition in which he makes the same statement: (Sixtus) "dum errores ex typographi ortos, et mutationes omnes, atque varias hominum opiniones recognoscere cpit, ut postea de toto negotio deliberare atque Vulgatam editionem, prout debebat, publicare posset, morte prventus quod cperat perficere non potuit". Any unauthorized use, without prior written consent of Catholic Online is strictly forbidden and prohibited. COST-$500 This isthe cost of transport, set up and break down of the exhibit. The Churchs Name, Catholic, universal, and world wide, and not confined to any particular nation or people. - St. Catherine School, Spring Lake, NJ, THANK YOU! About the Mission. In the New Rite, which has reduced the significance of the Stigmata of Saint Francis, Saint Roberts feast day has been moved to September 17. He died, however, before the actual promulgation, and his immediate successors at once proceeded to remove the blunders and call in the defective impression. Episode 372: Yes, Limbo is Church Teaching! His later years were spent in the composition of works of spirituality. St. Robert Bellarmine is the patron saint of catechists and catechumens. Even if you've never read the Summa you will, I am sure, appreciate our late Brother's tribute. Learning Resources - Free printable resources for schools, parishes, and more. He died on 17 September 1621, aged 78. The suggestion was accepted, and Bellarmine himself wrote the preface, still prefixed to the Clementine edition ever since in use. It is a strange thing, but one not entirely unexplained, that Saint Robert was canonized almost two hundred years after Saint Aloysius. Give a Gift SubscriptionBless friends, family or clergy with a gift of the Register. If, as was undoubtedly the case then with Galileo's heliocentric theory, a scientific theory is insufficiently proved, it should be advanced only as an hypothesis; but if, as is the case with this theory now, it is solidly demonstrated, care must be taken to interpret Scripture only in accordance with it. This was something almost altogether new: instead of stating a doctrine or dogma and saying that if you dont believe it you are, by default, a heretic, St. Robert Bellarmine made convincing and compelling arguments not merely against the Churchs enemies, but in favor of the Church herself. 20 hours ago 3 12 He was born in Italy in 1542, one of 10 children. So be it: no time must be spared to elevate the papacy to heights of power, both temporal and spiritual, it had never achieved. Even before his priestly ordination in 1570, he was appointed to preach in many of these cities. But now he was in purgatory destined to stay there until the end of time; so he asked her to redouble her prayers and penances to free him from purgatory before the consummation of the world. Immediately after his appointment as Cardinal, Pope Clement made him a Cardinal Inquisitor, in which capacity he served as one of the judges at the trial of Giordano Bruno, and concurred in the decision which condemned Bruno to be burned at the stake as a heretic. Bellarmine-Jefferson was a co-educational Catholic high school located in Burbank, CA that was founded by Monsignor Martin Cody Keating in 1944. The Slaves of the Immaculate Heart of Mary were founded in 1949 by Father Leonard Feeney, M.I.C.M. The glory of Miracles, worked in the Church and under the Churchs auspices. This major work was the earliest attempt to systematize the various religious disputes between Catholics and Protestants. [5] Bellarmine was made rector of the Roman College in 1592, examiner of bishops in 1598, and cardinal in 1599. Robert was born in Montepulciano in 1542. This abuse is often considered one of the causes of the Protestant Revolt. The parish of St. Robert Bellarmine was founded on May 29th, 1968, in a territory that belonged to the parish of Corpus Christi in the neighborhood of Allapatah. This was because he had discovered that it assigned to the Holy See not a direct but only an indirect power over temporals. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. [5] As a boy he knew Virgil by heart and composed a number of poems in Italian and Latin. [5] Bellarmine also prepared for posterity his own commentary on each of the Psalms. Nor has it even yet been superseded as the classical book on its subject-matter, though, as was to be expected, the progress of criticism has impaired the value of some of its historical arguments. St. Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) was born in Montepulciano, Italy, and died in Rome. print and digital media outlets, dedicated to reporting the truth in light of the Gospel and the Baius is famous for being the grandfather, as it were, of the Jansenist heresy, a collection of heretical ideas not too far from Calvinism. [22], Bellarmine's books bear the stamp of their period; the effort for literary elegance (so-called "maraviglia") had given place to a desire to pile up as much material as possible, to embrace the whole field of human knowledge, and incorporate it into theology. Printable Catholic Saints PDFs 10. St. Lutgardis heeded his plea and years later he reappeared to her resplendent in glory to thank her for obtaining his release from purgatory.. Though it was reintroduced on several occasions (1675, 1714, 1752, and 1832), and though on each occasion the great preponderance of votes was in favour of the beatification, a successful issue came only after many years. SET UP & BREAK DOWN- Most set ups and breakdowns will take place in the afternoon. Be sure to notice the date on the timeline and some of the world events that will help you to place in within the historical era. Allegiance oath controversy and papal authority, Bellarmine's letter of 12 April 1615 to Foscarini, translated in, Galileo's third deposition (10 May 1633), translated in, Introduction by Bishop Athanasius Schneider to, Disputationes de controversiis christianae fidei, "St. Robert Bellarmine The Great Defender of the Faith", "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Biographical Dictionary CAETANI, Enrico (1550-1599)", "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Biographical Dictionary BELLARMINO, S.J., Roberto (1542-1621)", "The Galileo Project | Christianity | Robert Cardinal Bellarmine", "Chapter 2: Bellarmine's Views Before the Galileo Affair", "Bellarmine, Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence", "Iacob's ladder consisting of fifteene degrees or ascents to the knowledge of God by the consideration of his creatures and attributes", "Bellarmine, Roberto Francesco Romolo, Duc de", "Saint Robert Bellarmine: A Moderate in a Disputatious Age", On the Roman Pontiff.
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